Within the video's examples of the artistic concepts of balance, unity, emphasis and movement, and the like, the following design elements help us create visual communication.

Design elements:
  • Line - either straight or curved
  • Shape - enclosed objects that can be created by line(s) or created by fills (black, white, or color) that define the edge of the shape
  • Color - a "color wheel" is made up of yellow, orange, red, purple, violet, blue, blue-green, green
  • Texture - the surface look of an object, created in the digital work by varying light and dark areas

White space:

White space is the absence of content in any design. While that might sound like it means that it's "nothing" the opposite is usually true: Effective use of white space within a design is, itself a design element.

A good designer uses white space to provide a pause in the art, to help direct focus and emphasis, and to help organize or "chunk" information. The best designers live by the mantra that "white space is our friend" (which is a quote this author has lived with for so many years that its attribution is impossible).

Good use of design elements and the principles of design, help communicators organize and create effective messages within any visual space (paper, computer/device screen, motion picture, video game, etc.).


Here is a LINK TO AN ONLINE color wheel.

Or check out Adobe's: https://color.adobe.com/create/color-wheel/.

For those who want to dive deeper into color HERE IS A LINK to an online color theory tutorial.


Wikipedia (2019) defines typography as:

"…the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed. The arrangement of type involves selecting typefaces, point sizes, line lengths, line-spacing, and letter-spacing, and adjusting the space between pairs of letters."

There are several excellent websites (and businesses) which offer information regarding typography. Here is one such site that describes the essential components of successful typography for any communicator.

LINK TO AN ONLINE typography explainer article.

LINK TO AN ONLINE TYPEFACE-MATCHING game (and investigate other fine resources there at your whim).

6 Favorite Universal Principles of Design

Click on a principle to reveal a principles' definition. These principles refer to all design, not just graphic or art design.

80/20 Rule

A high percentage of effects in any large system are caused by a low percentage of variables.
(Lidwell, Holden, & Butler, 2003, p. 12)
80 percent of a product’s usage involves 20 percent of its features.

80 percent of a town’s traffic is on 20 percent of its roads.

80 percent of a company’s revenue comes from 20 percent of its products.

(Lidwell, Holden, & Butler, 2003, p. 12)


A technique of combining many units of information into a limited number of units or chunks, so that the information is easier to process and remember.
(Lidwell, Holden, & Butler, 2003, p. 30)

This example is not chunked 8000637328

This example is chunked (800) 063-7328

Which do you suppose you could remember?

Also, don't call that number, it was just made up.


The degree to which prose can be understood, based on the complexity of words and sentences.
(Lidwell, Holden, & Butler, 2003, p. 162)
“Why use a big word when a diminutive one will do?" Dr. Ed Trotter used to say, in illustration of the absurdity of choosing more syllables than required to convey a message.

Aesthetic-Usability Effect

Aesthetic designs are perceived as easier to use than less aesthetic designs.
(Lidwell, Holden, & Butler, 2003, p. 18)

Inverted Pyramid

A method of information presentation in which information is presented in descending order of importance.
(Lidwell, Holden, & Butler, 2003, p. 116)

Rule of Thirds

A technique of composition in which a medium is divided into thirds, creating aesthetic positions for the primary elements of a design.
(Lidwell, Holden, & Butler, 2003, p. 168)
Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Universal Principles of Design. Gloucester, MA: Rockport Publishers, Inc.

Image credits from:
Google. (2014). Retrieved from https://www.google.com

Zuckerman, J. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.photovideoedu.com/Learn/Print/31363.aspx